In 1931 Japan invaded the three north-eastern provinces of China and set up the nominally independent nation of Manchukuo.  A puppet government was set up under P'u-Yi, the former Emperor of China, as "Chief Executive".  He adopted the reign title Ta T'ung.  In 1934 the Japanese raised his title to that of  Emperor of Manchukuo. A new reign title, K'ang Te, was adopted, though the basic design of the coins remained unchanged. These coins issued under both reign titles.  The bronze 1 Fen features the flag of Manchukuo on one side and floral sprays on the other.  The copper-nickel 1 Chiao (10 Fen) depicts a pair of dragons on one side and a lotus flower on the other.


Manchukuo was a Japanese puppet state carved out of Northeastern China prior to World War II.  Due to a severe metal shortage towards the end of the war, it issued these unusual 1&5 Fen coin struck in a red cardboard-like material rather than metal. The coins are dated in the twelfth year of the reign of Emperor Kang Te of Manchukuo.   Kang Te was formerly known as Pu Yi, who was the last Emperor of China until he was deposed in 1911. The Japanese used him as the figurehead leader for Manchukuo. These coins were struck only a single year; 1945.  These historic World War II coins are one of the few circulating non-metallic coins of the century.

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